# Faculty DirectoryZdeněk P. Bažant

McCormick Institute Professor, Walter P. Murphy Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Material Science and Engineering

## Publications

## Contact

2145 Sheridan RoadTech A135

Evanston, IL 60208-3109

847-491-4025Email Zdeněk Bažant

## Website

## Departments

Civil and Environmental Engineering

Materials Science and Engineering

## Affiliations

## Education

C.E. ("Civil Engineer"), 1960, Civil Engineering Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

Ph.D., 1963, Engineering Mechanics Czechoslovak Academy of Science, Prague, Czech Republic

Postgraduate Diploma, 1966, Theoretical Physics, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

Docent (habilitatis), 1967, Concrete Structures, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic

Registration: Illinois Registered Structural Engineer (S.E.), since 1971

## Research Interests

My interests lie in new interdisciplinary problems of the mechanics of solids and structures, with applications in structural, mechanical and aeronautical engineering, materials science, geophysics and petroleum engineering. My research group works on nonlinear fracture mechanics, size effects and scaling of failure, stability of structures, micromechanics of damage in materials, inelastic constitutive laws, creep and hygrothermal effects in nanoporous materials, chemo-mechanics, failure of fiber composites, hydraulic fracturing of shale, geothermal energy, impact problems, probabilistic mechanics of quasibrittle structures, plasticity and finite strain, with related numerical methods. Our research, which emphasizes mathematical modeling based on experiments, has been focused on concrete, rock, sea ice, braided and woven composites for automobile crashworthiness, hybrid joints for ships, rigid foams, shape memory alloys, dry snow slabs, fracking of gas shale, probabilistic analysis of quasibrittle failure, especially the tail distribution strength, predictions of creep and shrinkage effects in concrete structures, formulation of standards for concrete and ceramics, and applications to gas shale, fiber-polymer composites for aircraft and ships, metallic thin films, reinforced concrete structures and granular materials.

## Significant Recognition

- Member NAS, NAE, AAAS , Royal Society of London; National Academies of Austria, Czech Republic, Italy (dei Lincei), Spain and Lombardy; Academia Europaea, and Eur. Academy of Science and Art
- 7 honorary doctorates (TU Prague, TU Karlsruhe, UC Boulder, Milan Poly, INSA, TU Vienna, Ohio State)
- Austrian Cross of Honor for Science and Art, 1st Class” (from President of Austria)
- ASME Timoshenko, Nadai & Warner Medals
- ASCE von Karman, Newmark, Biot, Mindlin and Croes Medals and TY Lin, Huber Prize and Lifetime Achievement Awards
- SES Prager Medal
- Honorary Member of ASCE, ASME, ACI and RILEM
- W.Exner Medal, Austria Gov.-Industry Assoc.; RILEM L’Hermite Medal; Am. Ceramic Soc. Roy Award; Torroja Medal (Spain); Solın, Bazant Sr. & Stodola Medals (Czech Rep., Slovakia); IACMAG Outstanding Contrib. Award; ICOSSAR Award; SEAOI Meritorious Paper Award; Best Engrg. Book of the Year (SAP); Medal of Czech Soc. for Mech.; One of the original Top 100 ISI Highly Cited Scientists in Engrg.; Winner of Mathematical Olympics of Czechoslovakia 1955
- ASCE Created ZP Bazant Medal for Failure and Damage Prevention
- CSM, Prague, Created ZP Bazant Prize for Engineering Mechanics

## Significant Professional Service

- Past President of Society of Engineering Sciences, Founding President of IA-FraMCoS and of IA-ConCreep
- Past Editor-in-Chief of ASCE J. of Engineering Mechanics
- Officer of National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and Chair of several society committees

## Selected Publications

- Le, Jia-Liang, and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Finite weakest-link model of lifetime distribution of quasibrittle structures under fatigue loading." Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids 19(1), 56--70 (issue honoring G.I.Barenblatt).
- Bažant, Z.P., and Vorel, J. (2014). "Energy-conservation error due to use of Green-Naghdi objective stress rate in commercial finite-element codes and its compensation." ASME J. of Applied Mechanics 81 (Feb.), pp. 021008-1-121008-5.
- Salviato, M., and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “The asymptotic stochastic strength of bundles of elements exhibiting general stress-strain laws." Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics 36, 1--7.
- Hoover, C.G., and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Universal size-shape effect law based on comprehensive concrete fracture tests." ASCE J. of Engrg. Mechanics 140 (3), 473--479.
- Hoover, C.G., and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Comparison of the Hu-Duan boundary effect model to size-shape effect law for quasi-brittle fracture based on new comprehensive fracture tests." ASCE J. of Engrg. Mechanics 140 (3), 480--486.
- Zi, Goangseup, Kim, Jihwan, and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Size effect on biaxial flexural strength of concrete." ACI Materials Journal 111 (No. 1, January), 1--8.
- Zi, Goangseup, Kim, Jihwan, and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Size effect on biaxial flexural strength of concrete." ACI Materials Journal 111 (3), 319-326.
- Kirane, K., Bažant, Z.P., and Zi, Goangseup (2014). “Fracture and size effect on strength of plain concrete disks under biaxial flexure analyzed by microplane model M7." ASCE J. of Engrg. Mechanics 140 (3), 604--613.
- Bažant, Z.P., and Hubler, M.H. (2014). “Theory of cyclic creep of concrete based on Paris law for fatigue growth of subcritical microcracks." J. of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 63, 187--200.
- Hoover, C.G., and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Cohesive crack, size effect, crack band and work-of-fracture models compared to comprehensive concrete fracture tests." Int. J. of Fracture 187 (1), pp. 133-143.
- Akono, A.-T., Ulm, F.-J., and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Discussion: Strength-to-fracture scaling in scratching." Engineering Fracture Mechanics 119, 21--28.
- Bažant, Z.P., and Caner, F.C. (2014). “Impact comminution of solids due to local kinetic energy of high shear strain rate: I. Continuum theory and turbulence analogy." J. of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 64, 223--235 (with Corrigendum, Vol. 67 (2014), p. 14).
- Caner, F.C. and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Impact comminution of solids due to local kinetic energy of high shear strain rate: II. Microplane model and verification." J. of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 64, 236--248.
- Salviato, M., Kirane, K., and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Statistical distribution and size effect of residual strength after a period of constant load." J. of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 64, 440--454.
- Vorel, J., and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Review of energy conservation errors in finite element softwares caused by using energy-inconsistent objective stress rates." Advances in Engrg. Software 72, 3--7 (special issue honoring Prof. Zdenek Bittnar at his 70th birthday).
- Kim, Kyung-Tae, Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Creep design aid: open-source website program for concrete creep and shrinkage prediction." ACI Materials Journal 111 (4), 423--432.
- Bažant, Z.P., Salviato, M., Chau, Viet T., Viswanathan, H. and Zubelewicz, A. (2014). "Why fracking works." ASME J. of Applied Mechanics 81 (Oct.), 101010-1---101010-10.
- Vorel, J., and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Size effect in flexure of prestressed concrete beams failing by compression softening." ASCE J. of Structural Engrg. 140 (10), pp. 04014068-1--04014068.
- Kirane, K., and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Microplane damage model for fatigue of quasibrittle materials: Sub-critical crack growth, lifetime and residual strength." International Journal of Fatigue 70, 93--105.
- Chen, Xin, and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Microplane damage model for jointed rock masses." Int. J. for Numer. and Anal. Methods in Geomechanics 38, 1431--1452.
- RILEM Technical Committee TC-242-MDC (Z.P. Bažant, chair) (2015). “Model B4 for creep, drying shrinkage and autogenous shrinkage of normal and high-strength concretes with multi-decade applicability” (RILEM draft recommendation: TC-242-MDC multidecade creep and shrinkage of concrete: material model and structural analysis). Materials and Structures 48 (4), 753–-750(doi10.1617/s11527-014-0485-2).
- Wendner, R., Hubler, M.H., and Bažant, Z.P. (2015). “Optimization method, choice of form and uncertainty quantification of model B4 using laboratory and 23 multi-decade bridge databases.” Materials and Structures 48 (4), 771–-756. (doi 10.1617/s11527-014-0515-0).
- Hubler, M.H., Wendner, R., and Bažant, Z.P. (2015). “Statistical justification of model B4 for drying and autogenous shrinkage of concrete and comparisons to other models.” Materials and Structures 48 (4), 797–-814. (doi 10.1617/s11527-014-0516-z).
- Wendner, R., Hubler, M.H., and Bažant, Z.P. (2015). “Statistical justification of model B4 for multi-decade concrete creep using laboratory and bridge databases and comparisons to other models.” Materials and Structures 48 (4), 815–-833. (doi 10.161711527-014-0486-1).
- Bažant, Z.P., and Su, Yewang (2015). “Impact comminution of solids due to progressive crack growth driven by kinetic energy of high-rate shear." ASME J. of Applied Mechanics 82 (March), pp. 031007-1--031007-5.
- Elias, J., Vorechovsky, Skovcek, J., and Bažant, Z.P. (2015). "Stochastic discrete meso-scale simulations of concrete fracture: Comparison to experimental data", ASCE J. of Engineering Fracture Mechanics 135 (1), 1--16.;
- Su, Yewang, Bažant, Z.P., Zhao, Youxuan, Salviato. M., and Kirane, K. (2015). "Viscous energy dissipation of kinetic energy of particles comminuted by high-rate shearing in projectile penetration, with potential ramification to gas shale." Int. J. of Fracture 193 (1), 77-85.
- Hubler, M.H., Wendner, R., and Bažant, Z.P. (2015). “Comprehensive database for concrete creep and shrinkage: Analysis and recommendations for testing and recording." ACI Materials Journal 112 (4), 547--558.
- Kirane, K., and Bažant, Z.P. (2015). “Size effect in Paris law for quasibrittle materials analyzed by the microplane constitutive model M7." Mechanics Research Communications 68, 60--64 (special issue honoring B.A. Boley).
- Bažant, Z.P., and Donmez, A. (2015). “Extrapolation of short-time drying shrinkage tests based on measured diffusion size effect: concept and reality." Materials and Structures (RILEM, Paris) 49(1), 411-420. DOI 10.161711527-014-0507-0
- Wendner, R., Vorel, J., Smith, Jovanca, Hoover, C.G., Bažant, Z.P., Cusatis, G. (2015). “Characterization of concrete failure behavior: a comprehensive experimental database for the calibration and validation of concrete models." Materials and Structures (RILEM, Paris) 48, 3603--3626.
- Vandamme, M., Bažant, Z.P. and Keten,S. (2015). “Creep of lubricated layered nano-porous solids and application to cementitious materials." ASCE J. of Nanomechanics and Micromechanics 5(4), pp. 04015002-1--04015002-8; DOI: 10.1061(ASCE)NM.2153-5477.0000102.
- Kirane, K., Su, Yewang, Bažant, Z.P. (2015). “Strain-rate dependent microplane model for high-rate comminution of concrete under impact based on kinetic energy release theory." Proc. Royal Soc. A 471 (Oct.), paper 20150535, pp. 1--8; DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2015.0535.
- Kirane, K., and Bažant, Z.P. (2016). “Size effect in Paris law and fatigue lifetimes for quasibrittle materials: Modified theory, experiments and micro-modeling." Int. J. of Fatigue 83, 209--220.
- Kirane, K., Salviato, M., and Bažant, Z.P. (2016). “Microplane triad model for simple and accurate prediction of orthotropic elastic constants of woven fabric composites." J. of Composite Materials 50(9), 1247--1260. (doi: 10.1177/0021998315590264).
- Kirane, K., Salviato, M. and Bažant, Z.P. (2016). “Microplane-triad model for elastic and fracturing behavior of woven composites." Journal of Applied Mechanics ASME 83 (April), pp. 041006-1---041006-14 (doi: 10.1115/1.4032275]).
- D\" onmez, A., and Bažant, Z.P. (2016). “Shape Factors for Concrete Shrinkage and Drying Creep in Model B4 Refined by Nonlinear Diffusion Analysis." Materials and Structures (RILEM, Paris) 49, 4779--4784.
- Salviato, M., Chau, Viet T., Li, Weixin, Bažant, Z.P., and Cusatis, G. (2016). “Direct testing of gradual postpeak softening of fracture specimens of fiber composites stabilized by enhanced grip stiffness and mass." J. of Applied Mechanics ASME 83 (Nov.) 111003-1---111003-16; doi:10.1115/1.4034312; (extension of Bažant et al., arxiv No. 1604506).
- Bažant, Z.P., Luo, Wen, Chau, Viet T., and Bessa, M.A. (2016). “Wave dispersion and basic concepts of peridynamics compared to classical nonlocal models." J. of Applied Mechanics ASME 83 (Nov.) 111004-1---111004-16 (doi: 10.1115/1.4034319).
- Chau, Viet T., Bažant, Z.P., and Su, Yewang (2016). “Growth model for large branched 3D hydraulic crack system in gas or oil shale." Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society A374:20150418 (issue 10, Oct.)(doi: 10.1098/rsta.2015.0418).
- Bažant, Z.P.. and Jirasek, M. (2016). “Zhrouceni budov Svetov eho obchodn iho centra (WTC) a hlediska stavebn i mechaniky" (in Czech). Ceskoslovensky casopis pro fyziku (Czechoslovak Journal of Physics) 66 (5), 280--283.
- Bažant, Z.P, and Chau, V.T. (2016). “Recent advances in global fracture mechanics of growth of large hydraulic crack systems in gas or oil shale: A review". Chapter 13, pp. 435--460, in New Frontiers in Oil and Gas Exploration, C. Jin and G. Cusatis, Eds., Springer International, Switzerland.
- Salviato, M., Kirane, K, Ashari, S.E., Bažant, Z.P., and Cusatis, G. (2016). “Experimental and numerical investigation of intra-laminar energy dissipation and size effect in two-dimensional textile composites", Composites Science and Technology 135, 67--75.
- Bažant, Z.P., and Rahimi-Aghdam, S. (2016). “Diffusion-controlled and creep-mitigated ASR damage via microplane model: I. Mass concrete". J. of Engineering Mechanics ASCE 142 (10); pp. 04016108-1--04016108-10; DOI: 10.1061(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0001186.
- Rahimi-Aghdam, S., Bažant, Z.P., and Caner, F.C. (2016). “Diffusion-controlled and creep-mitigated ASR damage via microplane model: II. Material degradation, drying, and verification". J. of Engineering Mechanics ASCE 142 (10); pp. 04016109-1--04016109-10;DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0001185.
- Yu, Qiang, Le, Jia-Liang, Hubler, H.H., Wendner, R., Cusatis, G., and Bažant, Z.P. (2016). “Comparison of main models for size effect on shear strength of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams". Structural Concrete (fib) 17 (5) Dec., 778--789; doi: 10.1002suco.201500126.
- Sinko, R., Vandamme, M., Bažant, Z.P., Keten, S. (2016). “Transient effects of drying creep in nanoporous solids: understanding the effects of nanoscale energy barriers." Proc. Royal Soc. A 472:20160490; doi: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0490.
- Kirane, K., Singh, K.D., Bažant, Z.P. (2016). “Size effect in the torsional strength of plain and reinforced concrete," ACI Structural Journal 113 (6), 1253--1262; doi: 10.1435951689149.
- Rahimi-Aghdam, S., Bažant, Z.P., and Qomi, M.J.A. (2017). “Cement hydration from hours to centuries controlled by diffusion through barrier shells of C-S-H." J. of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 99, 211-224.
- Le, Jia-Liang, and Bažant, Z.P. (2017). “Mechanics-based mathematical studies proving spontaneity of post-impact WTC towers collapse." Europhysics News 48 (1), 18-23.
- Li, Cunbao, Caner, F.C., Chau, Viet T. and Bažant, Z.P., (2017). “Spherocylindrical microplane constitutive model for shale and other anisotropic rocks". J. of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 103, 155--178 (dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmps.03.006).
- Chau, Viet.T., Li, Cunbao, Rahimi-Aghdam, S., and Bažant, Z.P. (2017). “The enigma of large-scale permeability of gas shale: Pre-existing of frac-induced?" J. of Applied Mechanics ASME 84 (June), pp. 061008-1--061008-11.
- Donmez, A., and Bažant, Z.P. (2017). "Size effect on punching strength of reinforced concrete slabs with and without shear reinforcement." ACI Structural Journal 114 (no.4, July-August), 876--886.
- Frosch, R.J., Yu, Qiang, Cusatis, G., and Ba\v ant Z.P. (2017). “A Unified Approach to Shear Design". ACI Concrete International 114 (9, Sept.), 47--52.
- Luo, Wen, and Bažant, Z.P. (2017). “Fishnet model for failure probability tail of nacre-like imbricated lamellar materials." Proc. National Academy of Sciences 114 (early edition www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1714103114), 6 pp.
- Luo, Wen, and Bažant, Z.P. (2017). “Fishnet statistics for probabilistic strength and scaling of nacreous imbricated lamellar materials." J. of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 109, 264--287 (update of Arxiv1706.01591, June 4, 2017).
- Le, Jia-Liang, and Bažant, Z.P. (2017). “Mechanics of collapse of WTC towers clarified by recent column buckling tests of Korol and Sivakumaran." Int. J. of Structural Stability and Dynamics 17 (9), pp. 1771011-1---1771011-7; doi:10.1142S0219455417710110.
- Li, Cunbao, Chau, Viet, T., Xi, Heping, and Bažant, Z.P. (2017). “Recent Advances in Mechanics of Fracking and New Results on 2D Simulation of Crack Branching in Anisotropic Gas or Oil Shale." Acta Mechanica (special issue honoring late Franz Ziegler), " DOI: 10.1007/s00707-017-2010-5, in press.
- Sinko, R., Bažant, Z.P., and Keten, S. (2017). “A nanoscale perspective on the effects of transverse microprestress on drying creep of nanoporous solids". Proc. Royal Society A, in press.
- Rahimi-Aghdam, S., and Bažant, Z.P. (2017). “Importance of Creep and ASR Gel Diffusion in Predicting ASR Induced Expansion." Hormigon y Acero (Madrid) (special issue honoring Carmen Andrade at her 70th birthday); in press.
- Nguyen, H., Rahimi, S., and Bažant, Z.P. (2107).”Time lag in measuring pore humidity in concrete by a gage in finite cavity." Materials and Structures", submitted to.
- Bažant, Z.P., Caner, F.C. (2014). “Comminution of concrete due to kinetic energy of high shear strain rate." Computational Modeling of Concrete Structures (plenary lecture, Proc., EURO-C held in St. Anton, Austria), N. Bicani c et al. eds., Taylor and Francis, pp. 3--7.
- Salviato, M., Kirane, K., and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Statistical distributions of size effect of residual strength after a period of sustained load." , pp. 423--427.
- Wendner, R., Hubler, M.H., and Bažant, Z.P. (2014). “Multi-decade creep and shrinkage prediction of traditional and modern concretes." , pp. 679--684.
- Bažant, Z.P., Havlasek, P., and Jirasek, M. (2014). “Microprestress-solidification theory: Modeling of size effect on drying creep." , pp. 749--758.
- Buscarnera, G., Cusatis, G., Zubelewicz, A. and Bažant, Z.P. (2014), “Shale fracturing for energy recovery; current issues and review of available analytical and computational models." Proc., ASCE Shale Energy Engineering Conference, C.L. Meehan et al., eds., Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 168--199.
- Bažant, Z.P., and Caner, F.C. (2014). “Comminution of solids du to kinetic energy of high shear strain rate: Implications for shock and shale fracturing." , pp. 144--150.
- Bažant, Z.P., Donmez, A., Masoero, E., Rahimi Aghdam, S. (2015). “Interaction of concrete creep, shrinkage and swelling with water, hydration and damage: Nano-macro-chemo." Proc., CONCREEP-10 (10th Int. Conf. on Mechanics and Physics of Creep, Shrinkage and Durability of Concrete and Concrete Structures, held in Vienna, Austria, Sept.), publ. by ASCE, Washington, D.C., pp. 1--10 (plenary lecture).
- Vandamme, M., Bažant, Z.P., and Keten, S. (2015). “Numerical study of the creep of slit nanopore: role of water." pp. 313--317.
- Bažant, Z.P., Chau, V.T., Su, Y., Salviato, M. (2015). “Crack band approach to model 3D Hydraulic Fracturing of Gas Shale Stratum." Proc., 49th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symp., held in San Francisco, CA, paper ARMA 15-870.
- Bažant, Z.P., Hubler. M.H., and Yu, Qiang (2014). “Damage in prestressed concrete structures due to creep and shrinkage of concrete." in Handbook of Damage Mechanics, G.Z. Voyiadjis (ed.), Springer Science, New York, pp. 515--564.

Selected papers in refereed journals (among 500+) and books