Faculty Directory
Robert A. Linsenmeier

Professor Emeritus of Biomedical Engineering

Professor Emeritus of Neurobiology

Director of Northwestern Center for Engineering Education Research


2145 Sheridan Road
Tech E368
Evanston, IL 60208-3107

Email Robert Linsenmeier


NCEER - Northwestern Center for Engineering Education Research


Biomedical Engineering


Post-doc, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

Post-doc, University of California, San Francisco

Ph.D. Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

M.S. Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

B.S. Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA

Research Interests

Microenvironment of the mammalian retina, including oxygen and pH regulation, in health and disease; engineering education research

Significant Recognition

  • Fellow, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2009
  • Fellow, Biomedical Engineering Society, 2005
  • Bette and Neison Harris Professor of Teaching Excellence, Northwestern University 2003 - 2006
  • Fellow, American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, 1999

Significant Professional Service

  • Chair, College of Fellows, American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, 2010
  • Editor in Chief, Current Eye Research
  • Chair, Third Biomedical Engineering Education Summit Meeting, St. Charles, IL, 2008
  • Vice President, American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering. 2005-2007

Selected Publications

  1. Crosson LA, Kroes RA, Moskal JR, Linsenmeier RA. (2009). Gene expression patterns in hypoxic and post-hypoxic adult rat retina with special reference to the NMDA receptor and its interactome. Molecular Vision 15:296-311. Epub 2009 Feb 9.
  2. Wang, S., Birol, G., Budzynski, E., Flynn, R. and Linsenmeier, R.A. (2010). Metabolic Responses to Light in Monkey Photoreceptors. Current Eye Research 35(6): 510-518.
  3. Lau, J.C.M. and Linsenmeier, R.A. (2012). Oxygen distribution and consumption in the Long-Evans rat retina. Exp. Eye Research 102: 50-58
  4. Aksenov, D., Eassa, J.E., Lakhoo, J., Wyrwicz, A. and Linsenmeier, R.A. (2012). Effect of isoflurane on brain tissue oxygen tension and cerebral autoregulation in rabbits. Neuroscience Letters 524(2): 116-118
  5. Linsenmeier, R.A. (2012). Oxygen Measurements in Animals. Chapter 4 of Ocular Blood Flow, eds. L. Schmetterer and J.W. Kiel. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp 65-93.
  6. Linsenmeier, R.A. and Troy, J.B (2013) Retinal Bioengineering, Chapter 14 of Neural Engineering, 2nd Edition, ed. B. He. New York:Springer.
  7. Lau, J.C.M., Kroes, R., Moskal, J., and Linsenmeier, R.A. (2013). Diabetes Changes Expression of Genes Related to Glutamate Neurotransmission and Transport in the Long-Evans Rat Retina. Molecular Vision, 19:1538-1553.  PMCID: PMC3716414
  8. Linsenmeier, R.A., Cole, J.Y. and Glucksberg, M.R. (2014). Some cognitive issues in engineering design. Chapter 10 of Integrating Cognitive Science with Innovative Teaching in STEM Disciplines, eds. M.A. McDaniel, R.F. Frey, S.M. Fitzpatrick, and H.L. Roediger,   St. Louis, MO: Washington University Libraries. E-book available from Amazon.com
  9. Lau, J.C.M. and Linsenmeier, R.A. (2014). Increased intraretinal PO2 in short term diabetic rats. Diabetes 63(12): 4338-4342.
  10. Yi, J., Liu, W., Chen, S., Backman, V., Sheibani, N., Sorenson, C.M., Fawzi, A.A., Linsenmeier, R.A., and Zhang, H.F. (2015) Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation. Light – Science and Applications.  4:e334; doi:10.1038/lsa.2015.107. Published online 25 September 2015.
  11. Scarinci, F., Jampol, L. Linsenmeier, R.A. and Fawzi, A. (2015) Diabetic macular ischemia is associated with outer retinal disruption on optical coherence tomography, JAMA Ophthalmology (formerly Arch Ophth). 33(9):1036-44. PMID: 26158562. PMCID: PMC4651916
  12. Werkmeister, R.M., Schmidl, D., Aschinger, G., Doblhoff-Dier, V., Palkovits, S., Wirth, M., Garhofer, G. Linsenmeier, R.A., Leitgeb, R.A, and Schmetterer, L. (2015) Retinal oxygen extraction in humans. Scientific Reports, Oct 27; 5:15763. doi: 10.1038/srep15763.  PMCID: PMC4621499
  13. Baiduc, R.R., Linsenmeier, R.A., and Ruggeri, N. (2015) Mentored Discussions of Teaching: An Introductory Teaching Development Program for Future STEM Faculty.  Innovative Higher Education, published online, 12-Nov-2015  doi: 10.1007/s10755-015-9348-1
  14. Linsenmeier, R.A., Aksenov, D.P., Faber, H.M., Makar, P. and Wyrwicz, A.M.  (2016) Spontaneous Fluctuations of PO2 in the Rabbit Somatosensory Cortex.  Chapter 39 in Elwell, C.E., Leung, T.S., Harrison, D.K. editors, Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXXVII. Adv Exp Med Biol. 876:311-317
  15. Dmitriev, A.V., Henderson, D., and Linsenmeier, R.A. (2016) Development of diabetes-induced acidosis in the rat retina. Experimental Eye Research 149:16-25
  16. Linsenmeier, R.A. and Zhang, H.F. (2017) Retinal Oxygen: From Animals to Humans. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 58:115-151
  17. Linsenmeier, R.A. and Woods, L.M. (2017) Work in Progress: Educating Biomedical Engineering Graduate Students about Teaching. American Society for Engineering Education Conference and Exposition, Columbus, OH, June, 2017,

Link to Full List of Publications