Faculty Directory
Todd Parrish

Professor of Radiology

Professor of Biomedical Engineering


2145 Sheridan Road
Evanston, IL 60208-3109

312-926-2494Email Todd Parrish


Biomedical Engineering

Research Interests

Magnetic resonance imaging, Functional neuroimaging, MR cardiac, Clinical sequence and protocol development

Selected Publications

Geha PY, Baliki MN, Harden RN, Bauer WR, Parrish TB, Apkarian AV. The brain in chronic CRPS pain: abnormal gray-white matter interactions in emotional and autonomic regions. Neuron 60(4): 570-81, 2008.

Chen Y, Parrish TBCaffeine's effects on cerebrovascular reactivity and coupling between cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism. Neuroimage, 2008.

Chiao JY, Harada T, Oby ER, Li Z, Parrish TBridge DJ. Neural representations of social status hierarchy in human inferior parietal cortex. Neuropsychologia, 2008.

Wong PC, Uppunda AK, Parrish TB, Dhar S. Cortical mechanisms of speech perception in noise. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 51(4):1026-41, 2008.

Subramaniam K, Kounios J, Parrish TB, Jung-Beeman M. A Brain Mechanism for Facilitation of Insight by Positive Affect. J Cogn Neurosci, 2008.

Mander BA, Reid KJ, Davuluri VK, Small DM, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM, Zee PC, Gitelman DR. Sleep deprivation alters functioning within the neural network underlying the covert orienting of attention. Brain Res. 1217:148-56, 2008.

Li W, Howard JD, Parrish TB, Gottfried JA. Aversive learning enhances perceptual and cortical discrimination of indiscriminable odor cues. Science. 319(5871):1842-5, 2008.

Voss JL, Reber PJ, Mesulam MM, Parrish TB, Paller KA. Familiarity and conceptual priming engage distinct cortical networks. Cereb Cortex. 18(7):1712-9, 2008.

Thompson CK, Bonaakdarpour B, Fix SC, Blumenfeld HK, Parrish TB, Gitelman DR, Mesulam MM. Neural correlates of verb argument structure processing. J Cogn Neurosc 19(11) 1753-67, 2007.

Wong PC. Warrier CM, Penhune VB, Roy AK, Sadehh A, Parrish TB , Zatorre RJ. Volume of left Heschl's gyrus and linguistic pitch-learning. Cereb Cortex 17(7), 2007.

Safron A, Barch B, Bailey JM, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Reber PJ. Neural correlates of sexual arousal in homosexual and heterosexual men. Behav Neurosci 121(3)p: 237-48, 2007.

Bonakdarpour D, Parrish TB, Thompson CK. Hemodynamic response function in patients with stroke-induced aphasia: implications for fMRI data analysis. Neuroimage 36(2):p.322-31, 2007.

Sonty SP, Mesulam MM, Weintraub S, Johnson N, Parrish TB, Gitelman DR. Altered effective connectivity within the language network in primary progressive aphasia. J Neurosci, 27(6):p1334-45, 2007.

Krainak DM, Parrish TB, Dewald JP. A method to capture six-degrees-of-freedom mechanical measurements of isometric shoulder and elbow torques during event-related fMRI. J Neurosci Methods, Dec 27, 2006.

Li W, Luxenberg E, Parrish T, Gottfried JA. Learning to smell the roses: experience-dependent neural plasticity in human piriform and orbitalfrontal cortices. Neuron, 52(6):p1097-1108, 2006.

Wong PC, Perrachione TK, Parrish TBNeural characteristics of successful and less successful speech and word learning in adults. Hum Brain Mapp, Nov 28, 2006.

Baliki MN, Chialvo DR, Geha PY, Levy RM, Harden RN, Parrish TB, Apkarian AV. Chronic pain and the emotional brain: specific brain activity associated with spontaneous fluctuations of intensity of chronic back pain. J Neurosci 26(47):p12165-73, 2006.

Sullivan JT, Grouper S, Walker MT, Parrish TB, McCarthy RJ, Wong CA. Lumbosacral cerebrospinal fluid volume in humans using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging .Anesth Analg 103(5):p1306-10, 2006.

Parrish TB, Moritz C, Strigel R, Rowley H, Haughton V. Proper Masking to Show the True Activation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:p247-249, 2006.

Nomura EM, Maddox WT, Filoteo JV, Ing AD, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM, Reber PJ. Neural Correlates of Rule-Based and Information-Integration Visual Category Learning. Cereb Cortex, 2006.

Gitelman DR, Nobre AC, Sonty S, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Language network specializations: An analysis with parallel task designs and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroimage. 26(4): p975-85, 2005.

Mulderink TA, Schaeffer A, Meyer JR, Gitelman DR, Chandler J, Mesulam MM, Parrish TBSimultaneous assessment of motor and language areas with a single fMRI paradigm: Feasibility. Radiology. 236(2): p655-660, 2005.

Parrish TB, Schaeffer A, Catanese M, Rogel M. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Real and Sham Acupuncture. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine. 24(2): p.35-40, 2005.

Small DM, Gitelman D, Simmons K, Bloise SM, Parrish T, Mesulam MM. Monetary Incentives Enhance Processing in Brain Regions Mediating Top-down Control of Attention. Cereb. Cortex. 15(12): p. 1855-65, 2005.

Walker MT, Tsai J, Parrish T, Tzung B, Shaibani A, Krupinski E, Russell EJ. MR angiographic evaluation of platinum coil packs at 1.5T and 3T: an in vitro assessment of artifact production. AJNR 26(4): p848-53, 2005.

Mesulam M, Weintraub S, Parrish T, Gitelman D. Primary progressive aphasia: reversed asymmetry of atrophy and right hemisphere language dominance. Neurology. 64(3): p.556-7, 2005.

Booth JR, Burman DD, Meyer JR, Lei Z, Trommer BL, Davenport ND, Li W, Parrish TB, Gitelman DR, Mesulam MM. Larger deficits in brain networks for response inhibition than for visual selective attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46(1):p. 94-111, 2005.

Apkarian AV, Sosa Y, Sonty S, Levy RM, Harden RN, Parrish TB, Gitelman DR. Chronic Back Pain Is Associated with Decreased Prefrontal and Thalamic Gray Matter Density. J Neurosci. 24(46): p. 10410-10415, 2004.

Booth JR, Burman DD, Meyer JR, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Development of brain mechanisms for processing orthographic and phonologic representations. J Cogn Neurosci 16(7):p. 1234-49, 2004.

Gonsalves B, Reber PJ, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM, Paller KA. Neural evidence that vivid imagining can lead to false remembering. Psychol Sci 15(10):p. 655-60, 2004.

Reber PJ, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Priming Effects in the Fusiform Gyrus: Changes in Neural Activity beyond the Second Presentation. Cereb Cortex Sep, 2004.

Small D, Voss J, Mak YE , Simmons KB, Parrish TB, Gitelman DR. Experience-dependent neural integration of taste and smell in the human brain. J Neurophysiol. 92(3): P.1892-903, 2004.

Booth JR, Burman DD, Meyer JR, Trommer BL, Davenport ND, Parrish TB, Gitelman DR, Mesulam MM. Brain-behavior correlation in children depends on the neurocognitive network. Hum Brain Map. 23(2): p. 99-108, 2004.

Small D, Gitelman DR, Mesulam MM, Parrish TBDissociation of Neural Representation of Intensity and Affective Valuation in Human Gustation. Neuron 39(4): P.701-11, 2003.

Paller KA, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM, Reber, PJ. Neural correlates of person recognition. Learn Mem. 10(4): p. 253-60, 2003.

Booth JR, Burman DD, Meyer JR, Gitelman DR, Parrish TBMesulam MM. The relation between brain activation and lexical performance. Hum Brain Map. 19(3): p. 155-69, 2003.

Reber PJ. Gitelman DR. Parrish TB. Mesulam MM. Dissociating explicit and implicit category knowledge with fMRI. J Cogn Neurosci. 15(4): p. 574-83, 2003.

Hooker CL, Paller KA, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM, Reber, PJ. Brain networks for analyzing eye gaze. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 17(2): p.406-18, 2003.

Booth JR, Burman DD, Meyer JR, Lei Z, Trommer BL, Davenport ND, Li W, Parrish TB, Gitelman DR, Mesulam MM. Neural Development of Selective Attention and Response Inhibition. Neuroimage 20: p. 737-751, 2003.

Booth JR, Burman DD, Meyer JR, Lei Z, Choy J, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Modality-specific and -independent developmental differences in the neural substrate for lexical processing. Journal of Neurolinguistics 16: 383-405, 2003.

Small DM, Gitelman DR, Gregory MD, Nobre AC, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. The posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex mediate the anticipatory allocation of spatial attention. Neuroimage 18: 633-41, 2003.

Sonty SP, Mesulam MM, Thompson CK, Johnson NA, Weintraub S, Parrish TB, Gitelman DR. Primary progressive aphasia: PPA and the language network. Annuals Neurology 53:35-49, 2003.

Reber PJ. Siwiec RM. Parrish TB. Mesulam MM. Paller KA. Gitleman DR. Neural correlates of successful encoding identified using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Neuroscience 22(21):9541-8, 2002.

Skosnik PD. Mirza F. Gitelman DR. Parrish TB. Mesulam MM. Reber PJ. Neural correlates of artificial grammar learning.Neuroimage 17(3):1306-14, 2002.

Knuttinen MG. Parrish TB. Weiss C. LaBar KS. Gitelman DR. Power JM. Mesulam MM. Disterhoft JF. Electromyography as a recording system for eyeblink conditioning with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroimage 17(2):977-87, 2002.

Bendok BR. Getch CC. Ali MJ. Parrish TB. Batjer HH. Spontaneous thrombosis of a residual arteriovenous malformation in eloquent cortex after surgery: case report. Neurosurgery 50(5):1142-5, 2002.

Kim YH, Ko MH, Parrish TB, Kim HG. Reorganization of cortical language areas in patients with aphasia: a functional MRI study. Yonsei Medical Journal 43(4): p441-5, 2002.

Booth JR, Burman DD, Van Santen FW, Harasaki Y, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. The development of specialized brain systems in reading and oral-language. Child Neuropsychology 7(3): p119-41, 2001.

Carusone L, Srinivasan J, Gitelman DR, Mesulam MM, Parrish TBHemodynamic response changes in cerebrovascular disease: implications for functional magnetic resonance imaging. American Journal of Neuroradiology 23: p1222-1228, 2002.

Booth JR, Burman DD, Meyer JR, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Modality independence of word comprehension.Human Brain Mapping 16(4): p251-61, 2002.

Booth JR, Burman DD, Meyer JR, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Functional anatomy of intra- and cross-modal lexical tasks. Neuroimage 16(1): p.7-22, 2002.

Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Friston KJ, Mesulam MM. Functional anatomy of visual search: regional segregations within the frontal eye fields and effective connectivity of the superior colliculus. Neuroimage 15(4): p.970-82, 2002.

LaBar KS, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Functional changes in temporal lobe activity during transient global amnesia. Neurology 58(4): p.638-41, 2002.

Mulderink TA, Gitelman DR, Mesulam MM, Parrish TBOn the use of caffeine as a contrast booster for BOLD fMRI studies. Neuroimage 15(1): p.37-44, 2002.

LaBar KS, Gitelman DR, Mesulam MM, Parrish TBImpact of signal to noise on functional MRI of the human amygdala.Neuroreport 12(16): p.3461-4, 2001.

Vandenberghe R, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Location- or feature-based targeting of peripheral attention. Neuroimage 14: p37-47, 2001.

Vandenberghe R, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Functional specificity of superior parietal mediation of spatial shifting.Neuroimage 14: p.661-673, 2001.

LaBar KS, Nobre AC, Kim YH, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Hunger selectively modulates amygdala cortical activation to food stimuli in humans. Behavioral Neuroscience 115(2): p. 493-500, 2001.

Gandhi RT, Bendok BR, Getch CC, Parrish TB, Batjer HH. Correlation of functional MRI with intraoperative cortical mapping in patient with cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 192 (6): p.793, 2001.

Mesulam MM, Nobre A, Kim YH, Parrish TB, Gitelman DR. Heterogeneity of cingulate contributions to spatial attention.Neuroimage 13: p.1065-1072, 2001.

Gdowski MJ, Miller LE, Parrish TB, Nénonéné EK, Houk JC. Content dependency in the globus pallidus internal segment during targeted arm movements. J of Neurophysiology 85(2): p.998-1004, 2001.

Parrish TB, Gitelman DR, LaBar KS, Mesulam MM. Impact of signal-to-noise on functional MRI. Magn. Res. Med. 44: p.925-932, 2000.

Parrish TB, Hu X. Hybrid technique for dynamic imaging. Magn. Res. Med. 44 (1): p.51-55, 2000.

Gandhi RT, Bendok BR, Getch CC, Schweitzer J, Gitelman DR, Meyer J, Parrish TB, Mesulam, MM, Batjer HH. Displacement of hand representation to the contralateral hemisphere may predict neurologic recovery after arteriovenous malformation resection from the sensorimotor cortex. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 9 (5): p.246-249, 2000.

Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, LaBar KS, Mesulam MM. Real-time monitoring of eye movements using infrared video-oculography during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the frontal eye fields. NeuroImage 11:p.58-65, 2000.

LaBar KS, Gitelman DR, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Neuroanatomic overlap of working memory and spatial attention: A functional MRI comparison within subjects. NeuroImage 10: p.695-704, 1999.

Kim RJ, Fieno DS, Parrish TB, Harris K, Simonetti O, Bundy J, Finn JP, Klocke FJ, Judd RM. Relationship of MRI Delayed Contrast Enhancement to Irreversible Injury, Infarct Age, and Contractile Function. Circulation 100(19): p.1992-2002, 1999.

Kim RJ, Judd RM, Chen E-L, Fieno DS, Parrish TB, Lima JAC. Relationship of elevated 23Na magnetic resonance image intensity to infarct size after acute reperfused myocardial infarction. Circulation 100(2): p. 185-92, 1999.

Gitelman DR, Nobre AC, Parrish TB, LaBar KS, Kim YH, Meyer JR, Mesulam MM. A large-scale distributed network for covert spatial attention: further anatomical delineation based on stringent behavioral and cognitive controls. Brain 122 (6): p. 1093-106, 1999.

Fisher KV, Xu D, Parrish TBMagnetic Resonance Imaging to Assess the Water Environment of Laryngeal Tissues. Phonoscope 2(2): p.106-10, 1999.

Scheuler B, Parrish TB, Lin JC, Hammer BE, Pangrle BJ, Ritenour ER, Kucharczyk J, Truwit C. MRI Compatibility and Visibility Assessment of Implantable Medical Devices. JMRI 9(4): p.596-603, 1999.

Kim YH, Gitelman DR, Nobre AC, Parrish TB, LaBar KS, Mesulam MM. The Large-Scale Neural Network for Spatial Attention Displays Multifunctional Overlap but Differential Asymmetry. NeuroImage 9(3): p.269-277, 1999.

Ramani K, Judd RM, Holly TA, Parrish TB, Rigolin VH, Parker MA, Callahan C, Fitzgerald SW, Bonow RO, Klocke FJ. Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Assessment of Myocardial Viability in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease and Left Ventricular Dysfunction. Circulation 98(24): p.2687-94, 1998.

Selden NR, Gitelman DR, Murayama NS, Parrish TB, Mesulam MM. Trajectories of Cholinergic Pathways within the Cerebral Hemispheres of the Human Brain. Brain 121: p.2249-2257, 1998.

Meyer JR, Rabin B, Parrish TB, Russell EJ. The importance of precontrast magnetization transfer images [letter; comment]. AJR. 171(2): p.520-1, 1998.

McDonald KM, Mock J, D'Aloia A, Parrish T, Hauer K, Francis G, Stillman AE, Cohn JN. The functional impact of an increase in ventricular mass following myocardial damage and its attenuation by converting enzyme inhibaitor. Journal of Cardiac Failure 4(3): p.203-212, 1998.

Parrish TB, Fieno D, Fitzgerald SW, Judd RM. Theoretical Basis for Sodium and Potassium MRI of the Human Heart at 1.5T.Magn. Res. Med. 38 (4): p.653-661 Oct, 1997.

Meyer JR, Androux RW, Salamon N, Rabin B, Callahan C, Parrish TB, Russell EJ. Contrast Enhanced Magnetization Transfer Imaging of the Brain: Importance of Pre-Contrast T1 MT Images. AJNR 18: p.1515-1521, 1997.

Kraitchman DL, Wilke N, Hexeberg E, Jerosch-Herold M, Wang Y, Parrish TB, Chang CN, Zhang Y, Bache RJ, Axel L. Integrated MR Comparison of Myocardial Perfusion and Function in Dogs with Moderate Coronary Stenosis. Magn. Res. Med. 35(5): p.771-780 May, 1996.

Hu X, Le TH, Parrish T, Erhard P. Retrospective estimation and correction of physiologic motion in functional MRI Magn. Res. Med. 34 (2): p. 201-212 August, 1995.

McDonald KM, Mock J, D'Aloia A, Parrish T, Hauer K, Francis G, Stillman AE, Cohn JN. Bradykinin antagonism negates the anti-remodeling action of converting enzyme inhibition. Circulation 91(7): p. 2043-2048, April, 1995.

Parrish T, Hu X. Continuous Update with Random Encoding (CURE): A New Strategy for Dynamic Imaging. Magn. Res. Med. 33 (3): p. 326-336 March, 1995.

Wilke N, Jerosch-Herold M, Stillman A, Kroll K, Tseokos N, Merkle H, Parrish T, Hu X, Wang Y, Bassingthwaite J, Bache RJ, Ugurbil K. Concepts of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Quarterly. 10(4): p.249-286, December, 1994.

Hu X, Parrish T, Patel M. Novel sampling schemes in magnetic resonance imaging. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. VIII: p.15, 1994.

Parrish T, Hu X. A New T2 Preparation Technique for Ultrafast Gradient Echo Sequence. Magn. Res. Med. 32 (5): p. 652-657, 1994.

McDonald KM, Garr M, Carlyle PF, Francis GS, Hauer K, Hunter DW, Parrish T, Stillman AE, Cohn JN. Relative Effects of Alpha1-Adrenoceptor Blockade, Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Therapy, and Angiotensin II Subtype 1 Receptor Blockade on Ventricular Remodeling in the Dog. Circulation 90(6): p. 3034-3046, Dec. 1994.

Hu X, Parrish TReduction of Field of View for Dynamic Imaging. Mag. Reson. Med. 31 (6): p. 691-694 June, 1994.

McDonald KM, Parrish TB, Wennberg P, Stillman A, Francis GS, Cohn JN, Hunter D Rapid, Accurate and Simultaneous Noninvasive Assessment of Right and Left Ventricular Mass with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using the Snapshot Gradient Method. J Am Coll Cardiol. 19(7): p. 1601-1607 June, 1992.

Staewen SR, Johnson AJ, Ross BD, Parrish TB, Merkle H, Garwood M. 3-D FLASH imaging Using a Single Surface Coil and a New Adiabatic Pulse, BIR-4. Investigative Radiology. 25(5): p. 559- 567, 1990.

Haacke EM, Tkach JA, Parrish TBReduction of T2* Dephasing in Gradient Field-Echo Imaging. Radiology. 170: p.457-462, 1989.

Haacke EM, Patrick JL, Lenz GW, Parrish TBThe Separation of Water and Lipid Components in the Presence of Field Inhomogeneities. Reviews of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 1(2): p.123- 154, 1986.