ELEC_ENG 388: Nanotechnology



ELEC_ENG 223 or consent of instructor.


Physics and technology of nanoscale photonic and electronic devices. Bulk crystal, thin film and epitaxial growth technologies. Semiconductor characterization techniques. Defects in crystals. Nanotechnology processing: diffusion oxidation, ion implantation, annealing, etching, and photolithography. Nanoscale optoelectronic and electronic devices.

REQUIRED TEXTS: Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering by M. Razeghi (2009, 3rd Edition; Publisher: SPRINGER; ISBN-13: 978-0387921679, ISBN-10: 0387921672)


  1. M. Razeghi, Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering, 3rd Edition, Springer
  2. MOCVD Challenge, 2nd Edition, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group

COURSE COORDINATOR: Prof. Manijeh Razeghi

COURSE GOALS: Nanotechnology; The course is designed to teach the elements of advanced science and technology used in nanotechnology materials and nanodevice fabrication. The topics taught include the fundamentals of: quantum mechanics, nanoscale quantum structures, bulk semiconductor and epitaxial growth techniques, vacuum technology, semiconductor material characterization, defects in crystals, diffusion and implantation, wafer manufacturing, and processing.


  • WEEK 1: Semiconductor heterostructures and low-dimensional quantum structures: type I and type II Energy band offsets, model solid theory, Anderson model, quantum wells, quantum wires, quantum dots, multiple quantum wells and superlattices, optical properties of low-dimensional structures.
  • WEEK 2: Compound semiconductors and crystal growth techniques (1/2): III-V semiconductor alloys, II-VI compound semiconductors, bulk single crystal growth techniques (Czochralski, Bridgman, float zone, Lely).
  • WEEK 3: Compound semiconductors and crystal growth techniques (2/2): liquid phase epitaxy, vapor phase epitaxy, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, molecular beam epitaxy, thermodynamics and kinetics of growth, growth modes.
  • WEEK 4: Semiconductor characterization techniques: x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, EDX, Auger electron spectroscopy, XPS, SIMS, Rutherford backscattering, scanning probe microscopy, photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, reflectance, absorbance, ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform spectroscopy, resistivity, Hall effect, electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling.
  • WEEK 5: Defects: intrinsic and extrinsic point defects, line defects, planar defects, volume defects, defect characterization, defects generated during semiconductor crystal growth.
  • WEEK 6: Semiconductor device nanotechnology (1/2): oxidation, diffusion.
  • WEEK 7: Semiconductor device nanotechnology (2/2): ion implantation, characterization of sheet resistivity and junction depth.
  • WEEK 8: Semiconductor nanodevice processing: photolithography, electron beam lithography, etching, metallization, packaging of nanodevices.
  • WEEK 9: Semiconductor lasers: general laser theory, Rubylaser, semiconductor laser theory and characteristics. Photodetectors: general photodetector parameters, thermal detectors, photon detector theory and characteristics.
  • WEEK 10: Project presentations.


HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS: Homework is assigned weekly to reinforce concepts learned in class.

PROJECTS: The students will work in group on a project to design, fabricate, and test an optoelectronic circuit, or build a model related to the crystal structure of semiconductors. A written report and an oral presentation will be prepared.


  • Homework - 20%
  • Midterm - 20%
  • Lab reports - 20%
  • Project - 20%
  • Final - 20%

COURSE OBJECTIVES: When a student completes this course, s/he should understand nanotechnology by being able to:

  • Recognize and classify a crystal, recognize its structural properties, including symmetry operations, be knowledgeable in common semiconductor crystal structures.
  • Understand the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and be able to solve basic quantum mechanical problems.
  • Understand the physical meaning of energy band diagrams of semiconductor, the concept of effective masses and Brillouin zones.
  • Be knowledgeable in the various modern technologies used in nanotechnology to grow bulk crystals, thin films, and nanoscale quantum structures, including the epitaxy of semiconductors, understand the advantages and drawbacks of each of the techniques. Be familiar with Vegard's law and the concept of bandgap bowing.
  • Design compound semiconductor laser device structure emitting light at 1.3 m m and 1.5 m m.
  • Manipulate and calculate physical parameters related to nanotechnology, such as impingement rates, mean free paths and residual partial pressures.
  • Solve simple problems related to thin film deposition techniques (evaporation, sputtering, chemical vapor deposition etc....), such as for example determining the film growth rate for various growth conditions.
  • Interpret common semiconductor materials characterization data, as published in modern journal articles.
  • Design complete doping processes to achieve p-n junctions at a desired depth using successive diffusion and ion implantation experiments.
  • Design a photolithographic mask, design a sequence of steps in the processing of a semiconductor wafer into a final operational device, involving photolithography, electron beam lithography, etching, metallization and passivation.


50 % Science , 50 % Engineering