ELEC_ENG 223: Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering

Quarter Offered

Fall : MTuWF 9-9:50 ; Razeghi
Spring : MTuWF 9-9:50 ; Aydin


ELEC_ENG 202, PHYSICS 135-3; MATH 234


Introduction to Solid State Engineering. Crystalline state of matter. Quantum phenomena, quantum mechanics. Electrons in atoms, atoms in crystals, electrons in crystals. Energy band structures. Semiconductors. Thermal properties of crystals.


  • M. Razeghi, Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering, 3rd ed., Springer, 2009. 
  • M. Razeghi, Technology of Quantum Devices, Springer, 2010. 
  • M. Razeghi, The MOCVD Challenge (A survey of GaInAsP-InP and GaInAsP-GaAs for photonic and electronic device application), 2nd ed., CRC Press, 2017. 

COURSE INSTRUCTORS: Prof. Manijeh Razeghi (Fall),  Prof. Koray Aydin (Spring)

COURSE COORDINATOR: Prof. Manijeh Razeghi

COURSE GOALS: This course gives an overview of the basic multidisciplinary aspects of Physical Science. In the area of Solid State Physics in particular, it aims at teaching all the fundamental scientific concepts essential to Solid State Engineering and preparing the students for the Bachelor of Science so that they are capable of taking more advanced courses in this field. The students are led from the understanding of electrons in an atom, atoms in a crystal, and crystal group theory, to that of quantum mechanics for the design of electronic and optoelectronic devices.


  • WEEK 1: Crystalline properties of solids: structure of crystals, unit cell, Wigner-Seitz cell, Bravais lattice, crystal systems, symmetry properties, point groups, space groups, Miller indices, packing factor, reciprocal lattice, Brillouin zone.
  • WEEK 2: Electronic structure of atoms: hydrogen atom, Bohr radius, bonds in solids, ionic bonds, covalent bonds, mixed bonds, metallic bonds, secondary bonds, the periodic table, introduction to energy bands, conduction band, valence band.
  • WEEK 3: Introduction to quantum mechanics: limits of classical mechanics, blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, wave-particle duality, Davisson-Germer experiment, introduction to wave mechanics, basic concepts of quantum mechanics, quantization of electromagnetic field, photon, wave function, probability of presence, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Schrödinger equation, quantization of energy levels and momenta, tunneling, infinite potential well, finite potential well.
  • WEEK 4: Electrons and energy band structures in crystals (1/3): Bloch theorem, Kronig-Penney model, energy bands, nearly-free electron approximation, tight binding approximation.
  • WEEK 5: Electrons and energy band structures in crystals (2/3): dynamics of electrons in a crystal, Fermi energy, Fermi distribution, density of states (3D).
  • WEEK 6: Electrons and energy band structures in crystals (3/3): density of states (3D), electrons and holes, first Brillouin zone, band structures in metals.
  • WEEK 7: Semiconductor device laboratory demonstration: semiconductor growth technology, device processing technology and device measurement techniques.
  • WEEK 8: Phonons: vibration of atoms in a crystal, one-dimensional monoatomic and diatomic harmonic crystals, dispersion relation, traveling wave, phonon, acoustic and optical phonons, longitudinal and transversal phonons, Bose-Einstein statistics, sound velocity.
  • WEEK 9: Thermal properties of crystals: Debye model, phonon density of states, heat capacity, Debye temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, phonon mean free path, lattice contribution, electronic contribution.
  • WEEK 10: Project presentations.


HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS: Homework is assigned weekly to reinforce concepts learned in class.

LABORATORY PROJECTS: Eight laboratory sessions are scheduled to give practical understanding. A project will be assigned to each student or group of students to excite their curiosity about Solid State Engineering.


  • Participation in class - 10%
  • Homework - 15%
  • Lab reports - 15%
  • Projects and presentations - 20%
  • Midterm - 20%
  • Final - 20%

COURSE OBJECTIVES: When a student completes this course, s/he should be able to understand or be familiar with:

•  The nature of matter that they are surrounded by.

•  The structure of matter in its crystalline state.

•  The elements that compose a crystal, i.e. electrons and atoms.

•  The basic concepts in group theory, and quantum mechanics which govern the properties of electrons and atoms in a crystal.

•  The concept of black body radiation, wave-particle duality.

•  The formation of band structures in semiconductors, the difference between insulators, semiconductors, semimetals, and metals.

•  The concept of photon, phonon, light, and sound.

•  The observable macroscopic thermal and electrical characteristics of matter in their crystalline shape.

ABET: 90 % Science, 10 % Engineering