EECS 356: Introduction to Formal Verification

Quarter Offered

None ;


Mathematical maturity (please talk to the instructor if you are not sure what that means).


Introduction to formal techniques used for system specifications and verifications: temporal logic, set theory, proofs, and model checking. TLA+ (Temporal Logic of Actions) specifications. Safety and liveness properties. Real time specs and verifications.

REQUIRED TEXT: L. Lamport, Specifying Systems: The TLA+ Language and Tools for Hardware and Software Engineers. Addison Wesley. 2003.


COURSE GOALS: Correctness assurance is the most important aspect in the design of systems, especially those of life or social critical functions. “Testing can at best show the presence of errors, but never their absence”. Formal techniques treat a system as a mathematical object and relate its behavior with its structure through mathematical reasoning (i.e. proofs). In this course, we will study how to specify the behavior of a system formally and how to establish its correctness rigorously. With an introduction to discrete math, set theory, and temporal logic, we will study how to specify and verify systems using the TLA+ language and tools.


Week 1 Simple math and TLA specs

Week 2 Asynchronous interface specification and TLATeX typesetter

Week 3 Caching memory specifications

Week 4 Temporal logic: safety and liveness properties

Week 5-6 Model checking and TLC

Week 7 Specification and verification of real time systems

Week 8 Composing and decomposing systems

Week 9-10 Distributed systems and algorithms

COMPUTER USAGE: Students are required to download and install the TLA+ tools on their machines. They need to typeset specifications, check syntax, and check properties using TLC (a model checker for TLA+).

LABORATORY: EECS Department Workstation Lab. Accounts will be arranged if needed. The lab consists of a collection of high-speed workstations.


  • Homework - 50%
  • Project - 40%
  • Class participations - 10%


  1. Understand the general concepts of formal specification and verification.
  2. Understand the basic concepts in temporal logic, set theory, and discrete math.
  3. Be able to specify a general system in TLA+.
  4. Be able to verify general safety properties by proofs or TLC.
  5. Understand system correctness as an important part of engineering ethics.

ABET CONTENT CATEGORY: 100% Engineering (Design, and Discrete Math components).